Global disasters are emerging for reasons, and the 2018 Global Challenges Foundation report highlights some of the key risks facing humanity today. the next 50 years will be crucial for the survival of humanity in the next 10,000 years.
The goal is to work on management models, to reduce, or eliminate these threats. Among these threats, Global Challenges Foundation included only the collapse of ecology. According to the report, in today’s highly connected world, local disturbances sometimes can also have unforeseen environmental effects on other parts of the world.
These isolated events can cause the rapid collapse of most ecosystems on the planet, leaving little time for recovery. according to the report, one of the key factors that would reduce the threat of ecological collapse is the development and introduction of new technologies or models that consume fewer natural resources and are less polluting.
Another of these factors will be to lead a more environmentally friendly way of life through a specific modification of the structure of consumption, potentially accompanied by a change in behavior. if- before it’s too late to listen to experts and scientists and take to change our way of life by thinking of future generations despite the will of government and society continue to push citizens towards growth consumption in order to produce even more wealth?
Military applications of Atomic Energy were examined immediately after opening the Division, as shown in the patent application filed on May 4, 1939, the French physicist Frederic Joliot-Curie and his team on explosive nuclear devices (“improvements for explosive devices”, describing the principle of the atomic bomb). She then became a strategic issue during the second world war. The United States, the Manhattan project, led the first atomic weapon test on July 16, 1945, in the New Mexico desert and is used twice, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the 6 and 9 August 1945.
Of the cold war, we observe the intensification of nuclear weapons, has become the key to the balance of forces between the blocs of East and West to the collapse of the wall of Berlin in 1989. Although with regard to the weapons division, the operating principle has been known to the general public, many theoretical solutions and methods are still protected by a strict secret justified from the outset in order to delay – the fault of can prevent it – the spread of nuclear weapons among a number more countries.
You can select from the system of nuclear weapons of two main parts: on the one hand, the explosive part, is called load (set consisting of the explosive part and which ensures its functioning in the requirements called Sometimes the head); on the other hand, the party providing the transport from the place of storage at the point of explosion, called vectors. Less specific aspects of nuclear weapons become, mostly, at the level of the load. The energy put in the important game their extraordinary concentration in space and time: the mass, total quantity of pieces of sugar capable.
9Synthesis Of Biology And Genetics Makes The Militarization
The researchers announced the creation of the first living synthetic creature of the bacterial cell. The bacterial cell called synthetic bacterial cells whose natural genome (genetic) has been replaced by an artificially produced copy. Researchers have shown that it is, in principle, possible to produce the genome of a bacterium in the laboratory. However, it is only one aspect of synthetic biology.
Another goal of scientists in synthetic biology is the creation of creating biological systems that can produce drugs, materials or even fuel. First successes have already been postponed. Some bacteria, including the biological system, has been modified, to produce drugs against malaria or other biological fuels. The information on this topic is presented in chapter the goal of synthetic biology should be the principle of a building game by aiming at the computer biological systems and then building from start to finish. This, from genetics to synthetic biology occurs ethical and social issues.
In comparison with genetic engineering, synthetic biology carries with it additional risks? The European initiative Synbiosafe provides representation of the ethical aspects and safety issues related to synthetic biology. For more information on the objectives, benefits, and problems of synthetic biology, see the brochure of the Swiss Academy of Technical Sciences (SATW) under Nuclear weapons are complex and are made from rare materials and biological and chemical weapons can be produced in much cheaper. Angela Kane, a researcher at the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Nonproliferation, says in its report that biological weapons can cause global disasters if the pathogen causing a pandemic.
Toxic chemicals can be less deadly, but they can still infect a large area if they are placed in water. Angela Kane adds that it is possible that the global consensus on the ban for countries to use toxic chemicals is crumbling. She noted that chemical and biological weapons – although the prohibitions have been used at least four times in the last 40 years
8Climate Change Will Have Devastating Consequences
Leena Srivastava, Vice Chancellor of TERI University in India, says that despite the agreement on climate wagering, there is a 90% chance that rising global temperatures will exceed 2 degrees Celsius even during this century There is also a 33% chance that the rise of more than 3 degrees in the nineteenth century, and the world is not on the right track for that remark Srivastava. Much of Florida and Bangladesh will be underwater if the change is greater than 3 degrees, and major coastal areas like Shanghai and Bombay will be flooded.
Srivastava adds that many refugees are leaving these areas, suffering from extreme weather conditions and poor food efficiency. At least three civilizations collapsed due to climate change: Viking settlers, the Khmer Empire and valley civilization of the Indus. All three were affected by climate change that was local and not due to man, writes Srivastava. The climate change we face today in the world, and we have nowhere to go.In the dust-covered construction site located in southwest China, Mr. Tang of a migrant worker among many others. But this modest former farmer also faces a series of complex crises that threaten global health. Long-term forecasts suggest that the additional 350 million people in the rural areas are converted to Chinese cities by 2025 and only to attract new opportunities and constraints because of the poverty and lack of food they cause. Part of the climate change. Mr. Tang, the attraction of Chongqing is, according to him, “earn money”.
Living in a hut sitting in the thin, suffocating cement dust and surrounded by acres of concrete and skyscrapers, Mr. Tang earns 1,000 yuan a month, more than ten times what he earned in the countryside and enough to survive in the city and send money home in the village. His case is not exceptional.
For communities in the modern world, economic globalization often leads to unstable employment in industry and itinerant manuals, new toxicological threats and the risk of workplace accidents. In the slums, the lack of sanitation facilities and services related to difficult living conditions where workers live in crowded dormitories increases risks and vulnerability to infectious diseases.
7Collapse Of The Global Ecosystem
Humans depend on ecosystems for air, water, food, and shelter. Since the 1950s, however, deforestation and other ecosystem damage have reduced the habitability of the Earth faster and faster. Maria Ivanova, a professor of global governance at the University of Massachusetts in Boston, and Philip Osanova, a researcher at the Stockholm Environment Institute, indicate that the world’s ecosystems are in great danger. An international group of researchers has identified nine “planetary boundaries” not to exceed the global ecosystem to remain stable – including climate change, use freshwater and ocean acidification.
Ivanova and Osanova write that people have crossed the safety limits in four of these categories: climate change, terrestrial system change, biogeochemical cycles and the integrity of the modification of terrestrial systems refers to the conversion of forests, grasslands, and wetlands into agricultural which can harm the biodiversity and the flow of water in the case of intensive exploitation. The loss of integrity of the biosphere implies a human activity which leads to the extinction of plants and animals.
If the event sounds hollow it is not intrinsically a question of numbers but of behavior. The most lucid whistle blowers displayed such concern when we were only those 3 billion, as the obvious signs of an abused Mother Earth were already pleading for our overflow. When we are bad, we are always too many. And as we have not changed our habits, on the contrary, it is certain that 7 billion represents a disturbing outgrowth of the one and only invasive species that is: the human animal. Today, one second is 5 births: a real overdose for our planet. Counting mortality, the 402,000 daily births induces about 232,000 more people every day on the planet.
For thousands of years, the man was a rare species whose numbers increased very slowly. From 65,000 to 5,000 BC, the world’s population is estimated to vary between 6 and 8 million humans. Since year 1 of the Christian era, our world has grown from 250 million to 7 billion. From 100 million in the Bronze Age to 200 million in the Middle Ages, it is especially since the nineteenth century that demography shows a high incidence, particularly driven by agrarian, economic and health progress (previously alone 2 of the 6 children born survived to the age of procreation).
By increasing by 4 billion, the global population has tripled since 1950. Between 1900 and 2000, our membership increased from 1.65 to 6.06 billion, the six billionths human beings born in Sarajevo on October 12, 1999. The World population growth rate is currently 74 million individuals each year, some experts even suggest the figure of 1,000 million births per decade. It is now agreed to advance the semi-scientific figures of 80 to 106 billion humans who have inhabited the Earth over our 4000 generations.
At the continental level, the Asian one brings together 4.2 billion people, followed by the African continent, which has doubled its population since 1980 and surpassed one billion in 2009 (sub-Saharan Africa, excluding South Africa). , Reaches a record fertility rate with 7 children per woman, 45% of Africans are under 15 years old and Africa could reach 3 billion inhabitants in 2100, almost one in three Terrine). Latin America (including the Caribbean) has a population of 594 million, North America 354 million, Europe 733 million and Oceania 360 million.
Plague epidemics have already lost about 15% of the world’s population twice. Even though people have destroyed diseases like smallpox and failed to get rid of polio, there is a general fear that a new one of the diseases will not cause major outbreaks. David Heyman, the director of Chatham House’s Center Global Health Security says urbanization makes it difficult to control the infection.
Hayman also notes that some strains of bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics. If scientists do not find news, the number of people killed each year due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria will increase from 700,000 people per year to 10 million in 2050.
The laboratory volunteers report cases of bacteremia (presence of bacteria in the bacteria resistant to a national network of every country in Europe, which sends data to the ECDC. “And finally, from there we have calculated, still using literature, mortality and loss of quality of life, calculated in “disability-adjusted life years” (Daly), for example, 30 Daly represent either a male who lost 30 years of his life, that is 30 people who lost a year of life, or even configuration and the same goes through. This indicator, which the World Health Organization is already used in other studies on the global impact of the disease, interest to take into account the life spans the incidence of the disease.
It can be used for comparison of diseases and help prioritize health actions. exists a very large number of bacteria and types of resistance e However, nobody controls, is not everything in France, in Europe or elsewhere. The bacteria are very resistant, but very few microorganisms, such as Staphylococcus Albus, are not subject to national surveillance, for example. If the man is infected with an infection with these bacteria, there is a risk of leading to a therapeutic stalemate.
The first is the enormous weight of antimicrobial resistance. About 700 000 cases identified in Europe! Previous studies have already mentioned, but it is an indicator DALY offers a rather striking comparison: in terms of years of life lost, the impact of infections the bacteria about 900 000 Daly- is equal to that of the flu, the Tuberculosis and AIDS are added together. We have also been able to compare our results with those of another study published in 2009 ECDC based on 2007 data.
5Lack Of Food And Loss Of Millions Lives
It is believed that the asteroid is the cause of one of the three largest mass extinctions in history, when it struck Mexico nearly 65 million years ago, causing the end of the dinosaurs. Tim Spahr, DG NEO of Science, believes that an asteroid large enough to cause a global catastrophe is likely to fall on the ground every 120,000 years.
An asteroid of more than 965 meters in diameter can cool the climate of the planet because it releases a huge amount of particles in the atmosphere and obscured the Sun, adds Spahr. Hundreds of millions of people could die because climate change will lead to famine.
4The Supervolcanoes Eruption
Humans have almost disappeared about 74,000 years ago when the Toba supervolcano erupted in Indonesia and sent billions of tons of sulfates and dust into the air. Stephen Phelks, professor of earth sciences at the University of Bristol, writes that it is difficult to predict when the next supervolcanic eruption will occur because there are few past examples to rely on. These data suggest that an eruption occurs every 17,000 years, although 26,500 years have elapsed since the last occurrence.
Although scientists have not been able to predict volcanic eruptions long in advance, they have identified some potential locations, including Yellowstone in the US. A supervolcanic eruption would kill people in the vicinity and destroy agricultural activity, wrote Sparks. Sulfates and ashes would reduce the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth, which would harm the environment.
3Increase Global Temperature
Geo-engineering – whether it’s carbon removal or solar geoengineering – has the potential to mitigate climate change by manipulating the atmosphere. Removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, our planet may be next to abide by the Paris climate deal, writes Janos Pasztor, executive director of Carnegie Climate Geoengineering Governance Institute.
This method is not necessarily dangerous, but there is currently no carbon removal technique that will be ready to be deployed around the world. Solar geoengineering can reduce the temperature of the planet through the reflection of heat in space, although the technology is not yet advanced enough to be used.
It is also a risky project; Solar geoengineering can cause damage to the ozone layer, and it could threaten the food supply by disrupting ecosystems. If we suddenly stop using solar geoengineering, severe global warming and even international conflict can result.
2Smart Machines Could Destroy People
Smart machines could pose a risk to humans. Many scientists agree that artificial intelligence could reach the same level as the human brain over the next decades and that the machines are smarter than we could follow. In the Global Challenges Foundation report, five members of the Institute of the Future of Life show that artificial intelligence can be designed to destroy lives.
And even if the machines are programmed to do so, they can achieve these goals in a harmful way. If the super-intelligent system is engaged in the ambitious enterprise project, it could wreak havoc as a side effect, and consider the man’s attempts to stop him as a threat to anyone.
1Scientists Have Not Yet Presented
People could not predict new global disasters in many folds. Few people could have predicted the explosion of the first nuclear bomb before it happened, and climate change was not in the line of sight most people when the United Nations were created in 1945. Roey Tzezana, researcher Blavatnik Interdisciplinary Cyber Research Center in Israel, said in the report that the economic and scientific development of new and risks that we have not yet anticipated.
Scientists understand that some events are occurring, but they were judged to be too weak. For example, mass extinction may occur if our planet is in the line of sight of a gamma ray of the star, but Tzezana said that this risk is not theoretical at the moment.